Excellent Proofreading and Writing Results The results section is the part of the scientific paper around which everything else is built. The introduction describes why the results needed to be obtained, the methods how they were obtained and the discussion explains the results. The results section is just a presentation of the data. There should not be any discussion in the results section that goes in the discussion section.
Recent studies have challenged that view and suggested that while somatic activity near the DBS electrode may be suppressed, high frequency stimulation increases and regularizes the output from the stimulated nucleus by directly activating axons of local projection neurons.
It now appears that suprathreshold currents spreading into regions comprised of axonal fibers passing near or through the target structure as well as surrounding nuclei may also contribute to the beneficial effects of DBS. Together, the stimulation-induced regularization of neuronal output patterns are thought to prevent transmission of pathologic bursting and oscillatory activity within the basal ganglia thalamocortical network, thereby enabling compensatory mechanisms that facilitate normal movements.
This theory, however, does not entirely explain why therapeutic latencies differ between motor symptoms and why after turning off a DBS system the reemergence of motor symptoms differs among patients. Understanding these processes on a physiological level will be critically important if we are to reach the full potential of DBS as a surgical therapy and will in turn undoubtedly lead us to technological and clinical advancements in the treatment of other neurological disorders.
Critique in Conclusion of Paper — there are two organizational patterns 1 — The first paragraph is summary, second paragraph is critique, third paragraph is recommendations note: Conclusions In summary, during the normal ageing process, animals experience age-related cognitive decline.
Historically, it was thought that primary contributions to the aetiology of this decline were massive cell loss 1 and deterioration of dendritic branching 17, However, we now know that the changes occurring during normal ageing are more subtle and selective than was once believed. Of the brain regions affected by ageing, the hippocampus and the PFC seem to be particularly vulnerable, but even within and between these regions the impact of ageing on neuronal function can differ.
The morphology of neurons in the PFC is more susceptible to age-related change, as these cells show a decrease in dendritic branching in rats 30, 31 and humans 32, There is also evidence of a small but significant decline in cell number in area 8A of monkeys that is correlated with working memory impairments Moreover, so far, there are no reports of multiple single unit recordings in the PFC of awake behaving animals.
More is known about the impact of ageing on hippocampal function. Because more is known about the neurobiology of ageing in this brain region, there are therapeutic approaches on the horizon that might modify hippocampal neurobiology and slow age-related cognitive decline or partially restore mechanisms of plasticity.
Considering that the average lifespan is increasing worldwide, understanding the brain mechanisms that are responsible for age-related cognitive impairment, and finding therapeutic agents that might curb this decline, becomes increasingly important. The number and order of paragraphs parallels the number and order of main topical sections of the paper.
First, there are a sufficient number of studies in some areas despite claims often heard about the lack of evidence for CAM. Second, research findings for some of the CAM therapies reviewed here have demonstrated consistent beneficial outcomes for patients with arthritis and related diseases.
Specifically, there is moderate support for acupuncture in reducing pain as compared with sham acupuncture and limited support for acupuncture as compared with a wait list for OA of the knee. However, no claims can be made for the superiority of acupuncture across locations of OA and across comparison groups.
Further, only limited support exists for the efficacy of acupuncture for FMS with the caveat that acupuncture may actually exacerbate the pain for some patients with FMS. At this point, little is known about acupuncture for patients with RA. Homeopathy has been demonstrated to be twice as efficacious as placebo for rheumatic conditions, but the outcome was not specifically pain.
Furthermore, the interventions included both simple and complex homeopathy as well as individualized and standard treatments and may not represent the system of homeopathy as practiced.
More research is needed in this area. Some herbals and nutraceuticals are also beneficial in reducing pain. Among the herbals used for or promoted for RA, there is strong support for GLA as found, for example, in borage seed oil, evening primrose oil, and blackcurrant seed oil.
However, evidence is lacking for other herbals and more high quality research is needed.HOW TO WRITE A SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE.
Barbara J. Hoogenboom, PT, EdD, Finish with a concise, 3‐5 sentence conclusion paragraph. This is not just a restatement of your results, rather is comprised of some final, summative statements that reflect the flow and outcomes of the entire paper. How to write the methods section of a research.
Make Your Last Words Count. In academic writing, a well-crafted conclusion can provide the final word on the value of your analysis, research, or paper. Writing a conclusion is the final part of the research paper, drawing everything together and tying it into your initial research.
This article is a part of the guide. Science research papers are typically focused on a specific scientific inquiry, whereas other research papers may only be based on printed material. Purpose All conclusions are meant to summarize the results and implications of a topic under study.
Writing a research manuscript is an intimidating process for many novice writers in the sciences. One of the stumbling blocks is the beginning of the process and creating the first draft. This paper presents guidelines on how to initiate the writing process and draft each section of a research.
Sep 03, · How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper. In this Article: Article Summary Sample Conclusions Writing a Basic Conclusion Making Your Conclusion as Effective as Possible Avoiding Common Pitfalls Community Q&A The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without seeming too wooden or dry%(92).