Slavery Slavery, the practice of utilizing forced labor to produce goods  [ not in citation given ] and services, has occurred since antiquity throughout the world as a means of low-cost production. It typically produces goods for which profit depends on economies of scaleespecially those for which labor was simple and easy to supervise. Guild Guilds, associations of artisan s and merchantsoversee the production and distribution of a particular good.
Comments A single industry accounts for around 5 percent of global carbon dioxide CO2 emissions. It produces a material so ubiquitous it is nearly invisible: It is the primary ingredient in concrete, which in turn forms the foundations and structures of the buildings we live and work in, and the roads and bridges we drive on.
Concrete is the second most consumed substance on Earth after water. On average, each year, three tons of concrete are consumed by every person on the planet.
Concrete is used Industry production to build buildings, bridges, roads, runways, sidewalks, and dams.
Cement is indispensable for construction activity, so it is tightly linked to the global economy. Its production is growing by 2. Industry production primary component of cement is limestone.
Cement manufacturing is highly energy- and emissions-intensive because of the extreme heat required to produce it. Producing a ton of cement requires 4. Given its high emissions and critical importance to society, cement is an obvious place to look to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Cement Emissions The production of cement releases greenhouse gas emissions both directly and indirectly: The direct emissions of cement occur through a chemical process called calcination.
Calcination occurs when limestone, which is made of calcium carbonate, is heated, breaking down into calcium oxide and CO2. Indirect emissions are produced by burning fossil fuels to heat the kiln. Kilns are usually heated by coal, natural gas, or oil, and the combustion of these fuels produces additional CO2 emissions, just as they would in producing electricity.
This represents around 40 percent of cement emissions. Opportunities to Mitigate Indirect emissions from burning fossil fuels to heat the kiln can be reduced by switching to alternative fuelsincluding natural gas, biomass and waste-derived fuels such as tires, sewage sludge and municipal solid wastes.
These less carbon-intensive fuels could reduce overall cement emissions by percent from levels by Alternatively, efficiency measures can reduce the demand for fuel by addressing the production process itself such as switching from inefficient wet kilns to dry ones or through technical and mechanical improvements such as preventative maintenance to repair kiln leaks.
While some estimate that energy efficiency improvements could achieve emission reductions of up to 40 percentsome industry analyses suggest that producers may have already exhausted this potential. Without additional financial incentives such as subsidies or a tax on carbonfurther breakthroughs could be difficult.
Reducing emissions from the calcination process means looking to a material other than limestone.
Blended cement replaces some of the limestone-based clinker with other materials, primarily coal fly ash and blast furnace slag. It could reduce CO2 emissions by as much as 20 percent, but its widespread use is limited by other environmental regulations these substitutes can contain toxic heavy metals ; the limited availability of substitute material; and some building code restrictions blended cement can take longer to set.
Finally, CO2 emissions can be captured after they are produced through carbon capture and storage CCS. In addition to traditional CCS methods, which are already employed in some power plants, concrete producers can actually use their own product as a sink for CO2.
Through the process of accelerated carbonationCO2 penetrates concrete and reacts with calcium hydroxide in the presence of water to form calcium carbonate; the result is stable, long-term CO2 storage. As a mitigation technology, accelerated carbonation can be achieved by exposing freshly mixed concrete to flue gases with high CO2 concentrations.
Get our newsletter I'd like to get more stories like this.The Industrial Production Index (INDPRO) is an economic indicator that measures real output for all facilities located in the United States manufacturing, mining, and electric, and gas utilities (excluding those in U.S.
territories).(1). Palm oil is a type of edible vegetable oil that is derived from the palm fruit, grown on the African oil palm tree.
Oil palms are originally from Western Africa, but can . The only sector that did not register a decline in production levels during the crisis years and was the pharmaceutical industry. The growth rates for the different industrial sectors for the year are displayed in Figure 2.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy. The major source of revenue of a group or company is the indicator of its relevant industry.  When a large group has multiple sources of revenue generation, it is considered to be working in different industries.
Oil industry spars over forcing temporary production cuts as heavy crude dips to $15 Some oil companies are pushing Alberta premier Rachel Notley to enforce a 'curtailment' of production, while.
Five region-specific case studies in FAO's report suggest that GHG emissions can be significantly reduced by marginally improving production practices, while keeping production levels constant.