Hellenic science was built upon the foundations laid by Thales and Pythagoras. It reached its zenith in the works of Aristotle and Archimedes.
This is primarily a list of Greatest Mathematicians of the Past, but I use birth as an arbitrary cutoff, and two of the "Top " are still alive now. Click here for a longer List of including many more 20th-century mathematicians. Click for a discussion of certain omissions.
Please send me e-mail if you believe there's a major flaw in my rankings or an error in any of the biographies.
Obviously the relative ranks of, say Fibonacci and Ramanujan, will never satisfy everyone since the reasons for their "greatness" are different.
I'm sure I've overlooked great mathematicians who obviously belong on this list. Please e-mail and tell me! Following are the top mathematicians in chronological birth-year order. By the way, the ranking assigned to a mathematician will appear if you place the cursor atop the name at the top of his mini-bio.
Earliest mathematicians Little is known of the earliest mathematics, but the famous Ishango Bone from Early Stone-Age Africa has tally marks suggesting arithmetic. The markings include six prime numbers 5, 7, 11, 13, 17, 19 in order, though this is probably coincidence.
The advanced artifacts of Egypt's Old Kingdom and the Indus-Harrapa civilization imply strong mathematical skill, but the first written evidence of advanced arithmetic dates from Sumeria, where year old clay tablets show multiplication and division problems; the first abacus may be about this old.
By years ago, Mesopotamian tablets show tables of squares, cubes, reciprocals, and even logarithms and trig functions, using a primitive place-value system in base 60, not Babylonians were familiar with the Pythagorean Theorem, solutions to quadratic equations, even cubic equations though they didn't have a general solution for theseand eventually even developed methods to estimate terms for compound interest.
The Greeks borrowed from Babylonian mathematics, which was the most advanced of any before the Greeks; but there is no ancient Babylonian mathematician whose name is known. Also at least years ago, the Egyptian scribe Ahmes produced a famous manuscript now called the Rhind Papyrusitself a copy of a late Middle Kingdom text.
It showed simple algebra methods and included a table giving optimal expressions using Egyptian fractions. Today, Egyptian fractions lead to challenging number theory problems with no practical applications, but they may have had practical value for the Egyptians.
The Pyramids demonstrate that Egyptians were adept at geometry, though little written evidence survives. Babylon was much more advanced than Egypt at arithmetic and algebra; this was probably due, at least in part, to their place-value system.
But although their base system survives e. The Vedics understood relationships between geometry and arithmetic, developed astronomy, astrology, calendars, and used mathematical forms in some religious rituals.
The earliest mathematician to whom definite teachings can be ascribed was Lagadha, who apparently lived about BC and used geometry and elementary trigonometry for his astronomy.
Apastambha did work summarized below; other early Vedic mathematicians solved quadratic and simultaneous equations.
Other early cultures also developed some mathematics. The ancient Mayans apparently had a place-value system with zero before the Hindus did; Aztec architecture implies practical geometry skills. Ancient China certainly developed mathematics, in fact the first known proof of the Pythagorean Theorem is found in a Chinese book Zhoubi Suanjing which might have been written about BC.
Thales may have invented the notion of compass-and-straightedge construction.Watch video · Galileo Galilei was born on February 15, , in Pisa in the Duchy of Florence, Italy.
Childhood and Education Galileo was the first of six children born to Vincenzo Galilei, a well-known musician and music theorist, and Giulia Ammannati.
The relationship between the Catholic Church and science is a widely debated subject. Historically, the Catholic Church has often been a patron of sciences.
It has been prolific in the foundation of schools, universities and hospitals, and many clergy have been active in the sciences. Historians of science such as Pierre Duhem credit medieval Catholic mathematicians and philosophers such as. Physics (from the Ancient Greek φύσις physis meaning "nature") is the fundamental branch of benjaminpohle.com primary objects of study are matter and energy.
Physics is, in one sense, the oldest and most basic academic pursuit; its discoveries find applications throughout the natural sciences, since matter and energy are the basic constituents of the natural world.
Galileo's blindness later in life was probably caused by looking at the sun so carelessly. Looking at the sun for even a second through binoculars or a telescope is very dangerous. Powered by Create your own unique website with customizable templates.
Archimedes, (born c. bce, Syracuse, Sicily [Italy]—died / bce, Syracuse), the most-famous mathematician and inventor in ancient benjaminpohle.comedes is especially important for his discovery of the relation between the surface and volume of a sphere and its circumscribing benjaminpohle.com is known for his formulation of a hydrostatic principle (known as Archimedes’ principle) and a.
Twentieth-century plays have been written on Galileo's life, including Life of Galileo () by the German playwright Bertolt Brecht, with a film adaptation () of it, and Lamp At Midnight () by Barrie Stavis, as well as the play "Galileo Galilei".