How to Write a Summary of an Article? Was government and economy of Tsarist Russia transformed in the years between and ? There were many changes made to the government and economy of Tsarist Russia between andhowever fundamentally I do not think either were completely transformed as the country was still under almost complete control of the Tsar and the majority of people had a very limited political voice, and also the economy remained a major issue with few problems solved.
History of Russia —96 Peter the Great — [ edit ] Peter the Great officially renamed the Tsardom of Russia as the Russian Empire in and became its first emperor.
He instituted sweeping reforms and oversaw the transformation of Russia into a major European power. Peter I the Great — played a major role in introducing Russia to the European state system. While the vast land had a population of 14 million, grain yields trailed behind those of agriculture in the West,  compelling nearly the entire population to farm.
Only a small percentage lived in towns. The class of kholopsclose in status to slaveryremained a major institution in Russia untilwhen Peter converted household kholops into house serfsthus including them in poll taxation.
Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in His attention then turned to the North. Peter still lacked a secure northern seaport, except at Archangel on the White Seawhere the harbor was frozen for nine months a year.
Access to the Baltic was blocked by Sweden, whose territory enclosed it on three sides.
The war ended in when an exhausted Sweden asked for peace with Russia. Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland.
The coveted access to the sea was now secured. Inhe turned his aspirations as first Russian monarch toward increasing Russian influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of the weakened Safavid Persians.
He made Astrakhan the centre of military efforts against Persia, and waged the first full-scale war against them in — He replaced the old boyar Duma council of nobles with a nine-member Senate, in effect a supreme council of state.
The countryside was divided into new provinces and districts. Peter told the Senate that its mission was to collect taxes, and tax revenues tripled over the course of his reign. Peter abolished the patriarchate and replaced it with a collective body, the Holy Synodled by a government official.
Meanwhile, all vestiges of local self-government were removed. After a short reign of his widow Catherine Ithe crown passed to empress Anna who slowed down the reforms and led a successful war against the Ottoman Empirewhich brought a significant weakening of the Ottoman vassal Crimean Khanatea long-term Russian adversary.
Elizabeth supported the arts, architecture and the sciences for example with the foundation of the Moscow University. However, she did not carry out significant structural reforms.
It was successful for Russia militarily, but fruitless politically. Considering herself an enlightened absolutistshe played a key role in the Russian Enlightenment. She contributed to the resurgence of the Russian nobility that began after the death of Peter the Great.
State service was abolished, and Catherine delighted the nobles further by turning over most state functions in the provinces to them. Inspired by a Cossack named Pugachevwith the emphatic cry of "Hang all the landlords!
Instead of the traditional punishment of being drawn and quartered, Catherine issued secret instructions that the executioner should carry the sentence out quickly and with a minimum of suffering, as part of her effort to introduce compassion into the law. These gestures of compassion garnered Catherine much positive attention from Europe experiencing the Enlightenment age, but the specter of revolution and disorder continued to haunt her and her successors.
In order to ensure continued support from the nobility, which was essential to the survival of her government, Catherine was obliged to strengthen their authority and power at the expense of the serfs and other lower classes.frictions in the economy under the tsarist regime in and under the Soviet regime in We then compare a simulated Russian economy with tsarist wedges after WWI to the actual and projects Stalin™s economy.
To the best of our knowledge, there exists no dataset of comparable sectoral variables for tsarist and Soviet economies.
This paper studies structural transformation of Soviet Russia in from an agrarian to an industrial economy through the lens of a two-sector neoclassical growth model.
We construct a large dataset that covers Soviet Russia during and Tsarist Russia during From its initial creation until the Revolution, the Russian Empire was controlled by its tsar/emperor as an absolute monarch, under the system of tsarist autocracy.
After the Revolution of , Russia developed a new type of . economy and the most signiﬁcant economic polices in Russia from the middle of the 19th benjaminpohle.comdiscusssomeofthemaintheoriesthatwere proposedtoexplainthepatternsofstructuralchangeinRussiaduringthisperiod.
After the defeat in the Crimean War in , Russia undertook major economic reforms. Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century Russia Table of Contents The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia.
Transformation of Russia in the Nineteenth Century Russia Table of Contents The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia.